Stefan L Hahn is a Retired Professor of the Warsaw University of Technology since 1981 and a Full Member of the Polish Academy of Sciences and a Life Senior\r\nMember of IEEE. He is the author of several papers printed in USA, Poland and Germany. He is the author of the book, “Hilbert Transforms in Signal Processing”\r\n(ArtechHouse 1986) and the coauthor of the book, “Complex and Hypercomplex Analytic Signals: Theory and Applications” (ArtechHouse 2016). He is the author of\r\nthe extension of Gabor’s analytic signals to higher dimensions (Proc. IEEE, 1992). He is also the author of a paper about the origin of gravitation (jmp.2015.68117).
We have two conflicting hypothesis about the origin of the cosmological red-shift. Hypothesis A: The red-sift is caused by\r\nthe relativistic Doppler effect due to the expansion of the Universe (Hubble law). Hypothesis B: The red-shift is caused by\r\nthe lost of energy of photons during the travel from the source to the observer (Bellert’s law). The paper presents propositions\r\nof experimental validation of B. Proposition No.1, is based on the paper: S L Hahn, Possible experimental verification of\r\nBellert’s red-shift law using the Cosmic Background Radiation, Astrophysics and Space Science, vol.345, No.2, 2013, pp.363-\r\n366. Satellite missions confirmed that MBR is isotropic and has Planck spectrum of temperature 2.725 K. However, assuming\r\nthe validity of Bellert’s red shift law, it was shown that the temperature 2.725 K corresponds to a summation of radiations of a\r\ntemperature about 3.5 K reaching the observer from all directions of the observable Universe. In a project submitted to ESO\r\n(code 2013.1.00936T, date 2013-12-05, not accepted) the author proposed to verify the hypothesis B using radio-astronomy\r\nobservations of the dark Moon. The Moon is not transparent for mm wave MBR. Therefore, if an antenna located at Earth\r\nwould detect in the cone defined by a point on Earth and the circle of Moon’s radius, a radiation of temperature 3.5 K, the\r\nBellert’s law would be confirmed. Note that the dark Moon has a temperature of about 160 K. Therefore, the eventual detection\r\nof a radiation of 3.5 K would be possible only by application of statistical methods. Proposition N.2: A signal generated by a\r\nhighly stable laser frequency standard should be transmitted in vacuum along a large distance d and compared at the receiver\r\nsite by a second frequency standard to obtain a beat frequency. For a distance from Earth to a geostationary satellite, the\r\nbeat period equals about two hours and for a distance from Earth to the Moon equals few minutes. The above experiments\r\nrequire the application of two laser frequency standards. Another possibility is to use the existing LIGO arrangement (Large\r\nInterferometer Gravitational Observatory). The laser beam in a vacuum tube 4000 m long is circulating 100 times. This\r\ncorresponds to a value of d = 8000x100=800000 m =800 km, i.e. much less as the distance to the geostationary satellite.\r\nHowever, since the measurements can be repeated many times, there may be a chance to detect a very long beat period. In the\r\ncase of LIGO, no second frequency standard is required.
Vyacheslav I Dokuchaev has completed his PhD from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and Post-doctoral studies from Lebedev Physical Institute at\r\nMoscow. He is the Leading Researcher at the Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences. He has published more than 150 papers in\r\nreputed journals.
A new method for exact determination of the masses and spins of accreting black holes from the observations of quasiperiodic\r\noscillations is described. The detected signal from the hot spots in the accretion plasma must contain modulations\r\nwith two characteristic frequencies: the frequency of rotation of the black hole event horizon and the frequency of the latitudinal\r\nprecession of the spot orbits at the most bright inner edge of the accretion disk. The weak accretion activity of the dormant\r\nquasar Sgr A* at the galactic center occasionally shows up as quasi periodic X-rays and near-IR oscillations with the mean\r\nperiods of 11 and 19 min. These oscillations can be interpreted as related to the rotation frequency of the Sgr A* event horizon\r\nand to the latitude oscillations of hot plasma spots in the accretion disk. Both these frequencies depend only on the black hole\r\ngravitational field and not on the accretion model. Using this interpretation it yields the most exact values for both the mass M\r\nand the spin a (Kerr rotation parameter) of the Sgr A*: M=(4.2±0.2)106M◉ and a=0.65±0.05.