### Day 2 :

#### Keynote Forum

#### Ghassan H Halasa

University of Jordan, Jordan

###### Keynote: Weaknesses in the Big Bang Theory: The need for new theory

Time : **09:00-09:30**

##### Biography:

Ghassan H Halasa has retired from University of Jordan as Professor of Electrical Engineering. His early education was in Physics. He is a Fulbright Scholar at Murray State University in 2004 and a Visiting Professor at Western Michigan University in 2008. Most of his recent published work was in Electrical Engineering in the field of Renewable Energy. Recently, he published a book as an alternative to the Big Bang Theory.

##### Abstract:

Classical physics confirms that inertial reference frames can exist at any speed including at and above the speed of light. Relativity theory does not exclude inertial reference frame from existing at the speed of light as long as they did not accelerate to that speed from higher or lower speeds. Lorentz transformations state that inertial reference frames at the speed of light occupy zero volume and has infinite mass. In the Big Bang Theory, prior to the big explosion, dense matter occupied zero volume. The dense matter must have existed inside a speed of light (sonic) inertial reference frame. The following are some of the Big Bang Theory weaknesses. From the sonic reference frame point of view, the mass of the infinite dense matter could have been either finite or infinite. Lorentz equations indicate that for finite or infinite masses, both are viewed as infinite masses as viewed from rest. If the dense matter mass was finite, then this mass will be reduced further through its excursion to lower speed from the sonic speed towards rest. This situation does not explain our universe formation since this lower mass does not reflect the mass of the universe. If the mass was infinite, which is more likely, it may explain the universe inflation as predicted in the Big Bang Theory. If this is the case, then the dense matter must have occupied huge volume, equivalent to our universe huge space in the sonic reference frame as observed from inside that frame. For a huge volume and mass to slow down from the sonic reference frame it must have taken much longer time than the extremely short time as predicted by the Big Bang Theory. When the infinite mass dense matter was ejected from the speed of light reference frame, it must have been ejected through a canon like explosion in a direction opposite to the direction of the speed of light so that it slowed down to rest and stayed in the rest reference frame. The low of conservation of momentum tells us that there must have been an equal reaction in the direction of the speed of light; meaning at a supersonic reference frame. It is shown that at rest supersonic momentum is real and can be observed from rest. There is no evidence of such occurrence. A new theory was recently published based on the hypothesis that the universe started 13.7 billion years ago as one electron and one proton were ejected from a sonic inertial reference frame in opposite directions along the speed of light direction forming space and the early hydrogen atom, the bases of all matter. This theory is based on the following observed facts: 1) Electrons are in continuous motion. 2) Attraction between positive and negative charges. 3) The universe is electrically neutral; that is, negative and positive charges are equal throughout the universe.

#### Keynote Forum

#### Anton Lipovka

Sonora University, Mexico

###### Keynote: Nature of the cosmological constant and geometrical origin of quantization

Time : **09:30-10:00**

##### Biography:

Anton Lipovka has his expertise in astrophysics, cosmology, molecular spectroscopy, theoretical physics and solid-state physics as well. Since 2013, he is working on the fundamentals of quantum physics and the problem of unification of gravity with quantum theory.

##### Abstract:

In this paper, we prove that the cosmological constant is directly related to the geometry of the universe and appears naturally if we remove the artificial quadratic restriction on the metric applied in Riemannian geometry, going over to the more natural Finslerian geometry. As a direct confirmation of this fact, the Planck constant was calculated from the first principles (i.e. from the geometry). The calculation realized wit observed values of the cosmological parameters (Hubble constant and Cosmological constant) gives value h=6x10(-27) (erg s). It is stressed that in the framework of the Riemannian manifold, the value of the calculated Planck constant differ from the exact one by factor 3/2 due to difference in geometry. As another confirmation of the geometrical origin of the Cosmological constant, we have obtained the equations of electrodynamics on the Finslerian manifold. It is stressed that quantization naturally appears from these equations and is provoked by adiabatically changed geometry of manifold. We consider in detail two direct consequences of the equations: i) cosmological redshift of photons and ii) the Aharonov – Bohm effect, that immediately follow from obtained equations. It is shown that quantization of system consists of electromagnetic field and baryonic components (like atoms) is obvious and has clear explanation. To illustrate this fact, we calculated the energy of the ground state of the hydrogen atom within the framework of the Finslerian geometry with cosmological constant.